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Journal Article

Long-Term Outcomes of in Utero Ramadan Exposure: A Systematic Literature Review


Mahanani,  Melani R.
External Organizations;

Abderbwih,  Eman
External Organizations;


Wendt,  Amanda
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research;

Deckert,  Andreas
External Organizations;

Antia,  Khatia
External Organizations;

Horstick,  Olaf
External Organizations;

Dambach,  Peter
External Organizations;

Kohler,  Stefan
External Organizations;

Winkler,  Volker
External Organizations;

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Mahanani, M. R., Abderbwih, E., Wendt, A., Deckert, A., Antia, K., Horstick, O., Dambach, P., Kohler, S., Winkler, V. (2021): Long-Term Outcomes of in Utero Ramadan Exposure: A Systematic Literature Review. - Nutrients, 13, 12, 4511.

Cite as: https://publications.pik-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_26526
Health outcomes of in utero Ramadan exposure have been reported in a systematic literature review; however, the available literature on long-term effects were not fully covered. Our study aims to specifically review the long-term outcomes of in utero Ramadan exposure. We searched for original research articles analyzing any long-term outcome of in utero Ramadan exposure, excluding maternal and perinatal outcomes. Sixteen studies from 8304 non-duplicate search results were included. Most studies suggest negative consequences from in utero Ramadan exposure on health, as well as on economic outcomes later in adulthood. Higher under-five mortality rate, higher mortality under three months, and under one year, shorter stature, lower body mass index, increased incidence of vision, hearing and learning disabilities, lower mathematics, writing and reading scores, as well as a lower probability to own a home were associated with Ramadan exposure during conception or the first trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, age and sex seem to play a pivotal role on the association. Existing studies suggest that in utero Ramadan exposure may adversely impact long-term health and economic well-being. However, evidence is limited. Meanwhile, increasing awareness of the potential risks of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy should be raised among pregnant women and clinicians and other antenatal care workers should promote better maternal healthcare