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Journal Article

The Earth system model CLIMBER-X v1.0 – Part 2: The global carbon cycle


Willeit,  Matteo
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research;

Ilyina,  T.
External Organizations;

Liu,  B.
External Organizations;

Heinze,  C.
External Organizations;


Perrette,  Mahé
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research;

Heinemann,  M.
External Organizations;

Dalmonech,  D.
External Organizations;

Brovkin,  V.
External Organizations;

Munhoven,  G.
External Organizations;

Börker,  J.
External Organizations;

Hartmann,  J.
External Organizations;

Romero-Mujalli,  G.
External Organizations;


Ganopolski,  Andrey
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research;

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Willeit, M., Ilyina, T., Liu, B., Heinze, C., Perrette, M., Heinemann, M., Dalmonech, D., Brovkin, V., Munhoven, G., Börker, J., Hartmann, J., Romero-Mujalli, G., Ganopolski, A. (in press): The Earth system model CLIMBER-X v1.0 – Part 2: The global carbon cycle. - Geoscientific Model Development.

Cite as: https://publications.pik-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_28421
The carbon cycle component of the newly developed Earth System Model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-X is presented. The model represents the cycling of carbon through atmosphere, vegetation, soils, seawater and marine sediments. Exchanges of carbon with geological reservoirs occur through sediment burial, rock weathering and volcanic degassing. The state-of-the-art HAMOCC6 model is employed to simulate ocean biogeochemistry and marine sediments processes. The land model PALADYN simulates the processes related to vegetation and soil carbon dynamics, including permafrost and peatlands. The dust cycle in the model allows for an interactive determination of the input of the micro-nutrient iron into the ocean. A rock weathering scheme is implemented into the model, with the weathering rate depending on lithology, runoff and soil temperature. CLIMBER-X includes a simple representation of the methane cycle, with explicitly modelled natural emissions from land and the assumption of a constant residence time of CH4 in the atmosphere. Carbon isotopes 13C and 14C are tracked through all model compartments and provide a useful diagnostic for model-data comparison. A comprehensive evaluation of the model performance for present–day and the historical period shows that CLIMBER-X is capable of realistically reproducing the historical evolution of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, but also the spatial distribution of carbon on land and the 3D structure of biogeochemical ocean tracers. The analysis of model performance is complemented by an assessment of carbon cycle feedbacks and model sensitivities compared to state-of-the-art CMIP6 models. Enabling interactive carbon cycle in CLIMBER-X results in a relatively minor slow-down of model computational performance by ~20 %, compared to a throughput of ~10,000 simulation years per day on a single node with 16 CPUs on a high performance computer in a climate–only model setup. CLIMBER-X is therefore well suited to investigate the feedbacks between climate and the carbon cycle on temporal scales ranging from decades to >100,000 years.