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Journal Article

Complex Couplings - A universal, adaptive and bilinear formulation of power grid dynamics


Büttner,  Anna
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research;


Hellmann,  Frank
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research;

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Büttner, A., Hellmann, F. (2024): Complex Couplings - A universal, adaptive and bilinear formulation of power grid dynamics. - Physical Review X, 3, 1, 013005.

Cite as: https://publications.pik-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_29506
Traditionally, power grids have relied on synchronous generators, large rotating masses, for energy supply and stability. Currently, renewable energy sources, connected via programmable machines called inverters, are beginning to take the lead. Understanding the changes of grid dynamics brought by these new actors is crucial for a successful energy transition. Modern power grids, with components like solar cells, wind parks and batteries, present a challenge in ensuring stability. To address this complexity, the authors introduce a universal model, offering a surprisingly simple yet robust representation of the entire grid. This model enables the description of systems with different agents through a rather simple system of differential equations. Using analytical tools from various fields, such as dynamical systems, networks, and control theory, it is expected to enable universal statements about the stability of large, interconnected power systems. As a demonstration, a control law is developed to stabilize the power grid in extreme conditions, ensuring a stable energy supply even as power grids become more complex.